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Welcome to the webBRIEFCASE business and IT glossary. If you can't find the work / phrase you're looking for: search for it below, since it may be elsewhere on this site.

If you still can't find it, contact support@webBRIEFCASE.com.

It is good practice to have one to one meetings with your staff, line manager and other stakeholders. In a 1-2-1 meeting you can speak much more freely to each other than if others were in the conversation. Why not set-up regular 1-2-1's as repeating reminders in your calendar?

IT is notorious for generating many acronyms. Acronyms should be avoided in natural speech where possible, especially when speaking with non-technical staff. Acronyms used in written text should be accompanied by a brief explanation.

An appraisal is a meeting (and associated activities) in which the past and future performance of a member of staff is managed.

Ask for details about the webBRIEFCASE Appraisal Toolkit for best practice appraisal management

An asset is something which a person or business owns. Assets can be recorded in an asset register. Assets have a purchase, present and future values, and the value will usually appreciate (be more valuable) or depreciate (be less valuable) with time.

An asset register is a list of assets owned by an organisation. It can be used to record purchase, present and future values of assets.

In business, please say: if you assume - you make an ASS out of U and ME (i.e. ASSUME). See: Assumptions.

An assumption is an expectation that a condition is correct. For example, one could assume that the sun will shine brightly tomorrow, providing sufficient sunlight for a solar panel to provide electricity. It is valid for assumptions to be made, but they should be documented / communicated effectively if they affect others (e.g. in a project). Furthermore, assumptions should be validated. If they are found not to be correct, the parent (e.g. project) should be adjusted accordingly.

  • Assumptions are the "A" in RAID.

  • Assumptions are the "A" in BOSCARD.

An audit is a formal review of something. Audits are often dreaded in business, especially where any negative findings can result in penalties. It is possible to run pre-audit audits to pre-emptively fix any issues the true audit may find.

Authentication is the act of confirming that a person of system is who they say they are. For people, this may be the provision of login credentials, e.g. login name and password. Authentication should be used for access to restricted information and processes.

An authority can be a group or person with a particular responsibility / set of responsibilities. Authorities can often be referred to as governing bodies, standards bodies, etc.

Authorization is the process whereby a person or system is granted access to privileged data or processes.

An automated monitoring system automatically and repeatedly checks that something (e.g. a process, system, service, server, etc.) is working at all, or within pre-defined tolerances. It may record a log, and issue alerts (warnings or errors) when it detects scenarios.

See: Business to business

Systems tend to have a user facing aspect - the front end, and a system mechanism - the back end. An example of a front end is an application presented in a web page. The corresponding back end would be the application server, web server and database server powering the application.

Programmers make sometimes refers to themselves as a front end or back end developer.

Bad practice involves using processes which are incorrect. Perhaps they are inefficient and result in incorrect outputs. See also: good practice and best practice.

Bandwidth indicates the quantity of network traffic which can flow through a network connection.

Bandwidth can also indicate an individual or groups capacity to accept more work.

BASIC is a commonly used programming language. VBA (VisualBASIC for Applications) is an example of an implemented of BASIC.

See: Business as Usual

A benchmark is a standard measure to be achieved.

Every activity should result in a benefit. Sometimes, starting or progressing an activity may require the description of the benefit of the activity. Without a suitable benefit, the activity should not be started, or should be halted. It is not always easy to describe the benefit of an activity in terms of monetary reward, and sometimes it is therefore necessary to describe intangible benefits, e.g. more website visitors. Benefits which are aligned to an organisations strategic objectives are more likely to receive approval from senior managers.

Beta is a version indicator referring to software or a process which has been tested, but still must undergo further testing in order to be considered as production quality.

Big data refers to data which is so large that it is difficult to handle using traditional database technology. See: Wikipedia for more information.

When you see a website / web page you like, you can add a bookmark / favorite to your browser.

A BOSCARD is a way of describing a large activity - e.g. project, sufficient for a reader to quickly determine that goals, scope and scale of the activity. BOSCARD is an acronym for background (description), objectives, scope, constraints, assumptions, resources and deliverables.

See: Defect

| Approval | Agile | Asset Management | Accountability | 1-2-1 / One to one | Analyst | Accreditation | Agenda | Aggregate | Agreement | Assemble to Order |

A Business Change Manager (BCM) establish ad maintain contact with stakeholders in the business for a work stream (e.g. project). This include management of the stakeholder register and map, change impact assessment (CIA), facilitating regular meetings, etc.
Different organisations will have different requirements of a BCM.

B2B products and services are those which are supplied by a business, to another business, rather than business to consumer (B2C) - where consumer is a private individual.

Business to Consumer (B2C) is a business activity (e.g. sale of products / services) to a consumer (individual / person) rather than to a business. See also: business to business (B2B).

Bring your own device (BYOD) is a concept whereby people (staff, students, etc) can bring their own PC / phone to the workplace / university and use them to connect to the network and the available (sometimes sensitive) information. This can increase morale, and be seen as a sweetener when people are selecting a workplace. BYOD does however, pose security risks which should be carefully managed. As BYOD becomes the standard for many organisations, other will (sometimes begrudgingly) have to follow suit.

C is a widely used, structured programming language. Java is similar to C. C++ is C, but with the addition of object oriented programming - e.g. classes.

See: Computer Aided Design

See: Computer Aided Manufacturing

A worksheet in a spreadsheet workbook consists of cells (data buckets) arranged in rows and columns. A cell can contain data (e.g. a field of a record, some test, etc), a formula, etc.

When people take their work from a shared list, some people will choose the easiest activities since they can be completed quicker and easier. This will especially be the case, if the individual is subject to measures / KPIs or the individual is not experienced / skill enough to tackle other items. Methods of avoiding cherry picking are: allocating work rather than allowing people to pick, rating the difficulty of items, providing incentives / rewards for picking difficult items, applying measures across a team rather than individuals. Sometimes it is appropriate to cherry pick. If for example, a list is becoming too large, and it's difficult to see the scale of the total amount of work, then dealing quickly with a large number of smaller, easier items brings more clarity. A related term is: low hanging fruit - i.e. those smaller, simpler items.

See: CPC

CPC = Cost per click. It is a method of charging for web advertising services. You supply the advert materials, and these are published by a publisher: a website or advertising network. You are then charged each click someone clicks on your advert, not when the advert is published for you.

Google Adwords is an example of a CPC advertising platform.

CPC platforms should have measures in place to stop people from sabotaging your campaign by clicking on the banners multiple times resulting in you being charged for invalid clicks.

Some CPC platforms (e.g. Adwords) require that you bid for your position against your competitors. If you bid too low, your advert may not be shown.

CPC is often considered as cost effective because your offering (e.g. brand / service) gains from advertising exposure anyway at a relatively low cost, depending on the number of click-throughs.


In business - we all have customers. If someone asks you to do something, they are your customer. Your boss for example. You should always try to ensure customer satisfaction and can achieve this by second-guessing (and confirming if possible) what they will want to see you produce, not just what they ask for (there is usually a difference). You should balance the customers' wants against the resources (e.g. time) that you have available. See also: MoSCoW. 

A daemon is a software process which, when starts, continues to run in the background. Daemons are often used on Linux / Unix systems for monitoring and for server applications - e.g. web server, database server, etc.

Data is raw bits, bytes, characters stored by and retrieved from a computer system. See also: information and knowledge.

Sensitive information should be protected. Here are some classifications.

  • Non-Sensitive

    • Public

    • Routine Business Information (RBI)

  • Sensitive

    • Personal, Private

    • Classified

A data dump is an export / extract of records from a database into a file.

A database (DB) is a method of storage data. Database management systems (DBMS) are applications which store databases. Structured databases are in common use for most purposes. Cube databases are suited to data mining. Microsoft SQL, MySQL and Oracle are examples of DBMS.

See: Database

Denial of Service (DoS) is a hacking attack which denies people with access to a service. For example, overloading a website, or locking a user out with multiple login attempts.

For project management and software development, deply means to release the product.

See: Denial of Service

An e-book is a book in electronic form to allow it to be read on a computing device. Kindle is a popular e-book platform.

An Easter egg is an intentional inside joke, hidden message, or feature in a work such as a computer program, movie, book, or crossword. (Wikipedia)

We love all kinds of easter eggs (especially chocolate ones). Please send your suggestions to support@webBRIEFCASE.com.

An electronic signature can be used to electronically sign a document. It is often used with PDF documents.

A test (e.g. QA test) can be passed, passed provisionally or failed. If it fails, it is likely that the cause of the fault (the defect) needs to be fixed before further testing.

A firewall protects a network or computer system from hackers.

If you supply rubbish data as input to a process, you are very likely to receive rubbish data as an output. This can be avoided by validating the input data.

A project gate is a formal review of the properties of a project to determine whether it is ready to progress from one stage (e.g. design) to another (e.g. build). The gate review can take place by e-mail or in a meeting. The result of the review should be:
  • Continue
  • Continue with proviso(s)
  • Reject and resubmit later
  • Cancel the project

See: Gigabytes

A gigabyte (GB) is equivalent to 1024 megabytes (MB). Modern memory chips (RAM) and disk storage is usually measured in GB or TB.

See: Garbage in garbage out

A hacker is a person who attempts to gain unauthorized access to a system. Hackers exploit holes in security defenses such as old software, open network ports, weak passwords, etc.

A hacker can also be a person who integrates software written by other people.

A hand over is when a person describes their role to another people. It is often used when one person leaves and another will take their place.

A high level estimate (may also be referred to as: order of magnitude (OOM)) is a very rough (hopefully educated) guess which gives the requester a guide for their expectations. For example, a HLE for building an extension on a house may be 3-4 months. With this estimate, the homeowner can manage their own expectations about how long the build will affect the household. 

HLE can be provided for effort, duration, financial cost, materials, etc. HLEs should be validated and become standard estimates or better still quotes.

See also: Order of magnitude (OOM).

A hit on a website is when a file is served. Each page can be made up of multiple files. The page itself, cascading style sheets (CSS), images, etc. The number of hits to a website is not a good measure of the popularity of the website.

A hot desk is a desk which is usually not allocated to a particular individual, and can instead be used temporarily. It will usually have standard features such as: desk, chair, phone, and may / may not have a PC.

From Wikipedia: iCalendar is a computer file format which allows Internet users to send meeting requests and tasks to other Internet users, via email, or sharing files with an extension of .ics. Recipients of the iCalendar data file (with supporting software, such as an email client or calendar application) can respond to the sender easily or counter-propose another meeting date/time.

iCalendar is used and supported by a large number of products, including Google Calendar, Apple Calendar (formerly iCal),GoDaddy Online Group Calendar, IBM Lotus Notes, Yahoo! Calendar, Evolution (software), eM Client, Lightning extension for Mozilla Thunderbird and SeaMonkey, and partially by Microsoft Outlook and Novell GroupWise.

See: Instant Messaging

Business impact of an issue / change often needs to be specified in order to appropriately review, prioritize and approve. Specification of the impact may include defining which geographies, groups and roles are affected, or perhaps a cost estimate, etc.

Information is data which has been given a contextual meaning. See also: knowledge.

| ADSL | ASCII | ANSI | Appliance | Air Conditioning (AC) | 3G | 4G | Applet | Administrator | App | Access | Algorithm | Batch Processing | Array | Access Method | AP = Access Point | AD = Active Directory | Adapter | Advanced Technology | AIM (AOL Instant Messenger) | Apple | Analytics | AD = Application Development | Application Integration | Application Server | 3-Tier Architecture | Application Sharing | Artificial Intelligence (AI) | AR = Augmented Reality | Application | apt-get | ICT Standards |

An instant messaging application (software), is one which allows the user to instantly communicate by typing, with a friend, relative, colleague, etc. Examples of instant messaging applications include Windows Messenger and Skype.

ITIL is an industry standard best practice service management framework. ITIL defines how to deal with service incidents, problems, change, availability, etc.

See: IT Infrastructure Library

Java is one of the most widely used programming languages / environments. It can be found on personal computers and other devices, e.g. personal video recorders (PVR).

JavaScript is a powerful client-side programming language. JavaScript code is run in the web browser, rather than on the web server. JavaScript is often used to implement enhanced forms (e.g with validation), menus, etc. It can even be used for games. Ajax uses JavaScript. See also: Java (a separate language).

See: Keyboard

A KPI measures the performance of a process, business group (e.g. department) etc.

A computer keyboard is a standard device for entering text, controlling the cursor and other special functions. It is often used in conjunction with a mouse. Standard keyboards are relatively inexpensive, and will often need a USB connector. Old keyboards use a PS/2 or serial connector.

Knowledge is information to which one or more rules have been applied. See also: knowledgebase.

See: Key Performance Indicator

A person is said to be 'laid back' if they are calm, quiet and reactive. Their stress levels appear to be constantly low.

When dealing with queues, items can be processed in LIFO or FIFO order. LIFO is last in first out. For example, if data is entered: A, B, C (i.e. A is first), with LIFO, C will be returned first. 

LIFO is sometimes used with company redundancies. The last person hired can be the first person who is made redundant. The rationale for this can be that the last person to enter the company has less knowledge of the company, its processes, people, and is likely to have less loyalty.

Apple Mac is a personal computer produced by Apple and designed for each of use. It is particular popular among graphic designers due to its excellent graphical capabilities. Macs are an alternative to PC compatibles (standard PCs) - but tend to be more expensive when compared like-for-like (hardware). Macs run OS X - which is based on Linux.

A manager is a person who co-ordinates the activities of others, often in a team / department. Team leaders / supervisors will usually report to a manager. Managers will usually report to directors. See also: Project Manager.

Assembly of existing services / code into a new solution / service.

To watch over something, e.g. a process, server, etc. See: automated monitoring.

A display screen (flat screen, TFT, CRT, etc.) attached to a computer or video camera.

See: Network Attached Storage

A process of organizing the fields and tables of a relational database to minimize redundancy and dependency.

An objective is something to be achieved. The O in BOSCARD (project description) stands for objectives. If you can measure the success of an activity by whether it achieved its objectives. A strategic objective is a long term goal of an organisation. An example may be: reduce costs. Strategic objectives can be measured through KPIs and Metrics.

When delivering a product / service (including doing a job for your line manager) you should hand over the results to the recipient 'on a plate' - i.e. present it in a professional manner. For example, if you are provided raw data, accompany it with your own analysis. When providing a service, be courteous.

An OOM estimate is a very rough (hopefully educated) guess which gives the requester a guide for their expectations. For example, an OOM estimate for building an extension on a house may be 3-4 months. With this OOM estimate, the homeowner can manage their own expectations about how long the build will affect the household.

OOM estimates can be provided for effort, duration, financial cost, materials, etc. OOM estimates should be validated and become standard estimates or better still quotes.

See also: High level estimate (HLE)

The page fold is an imaginary horizontal line across a web page where a user has to scroll up to see past. Web developers will often try to ensure key items are shown above the page fold. The page fold is in different positions on different screens, depending on the screen size.

When a real user visits a web page, a page impression is counted. Only one page impression is counted regardless of how many times the users visits that page in a session. Page impressions is a better measure that hits.

A page impression is where a website servers a web page. The number of page impressions delivered over a particular period is a better measure of a website popularity that hits. An even better measure is unique visitors or unique users.

See: Proof of concept

Programming is almost synonymous with software development and is the act of writing or modifying software.

An activity which may be justified simply because it will prove a concept to be true or false. The PoC may be a scaled down version of a larger activity (e.g. project) to implement a full solution.

See: Quality Assurance

A quad core processor is one with 4 cores - effectively 4 micro-processors. It is usually better at multi-tasking that single core processors, since applications can be shared among the cores. See also: dual core and single core.

Quality Assurance is a business process / function which ensures the quality of new and updated products / services. QA includes testing against a pre-defined specification. If the item does not meet with expectations it is considered defective, and may be rejected. Rejected items are either disposed of or fixed.

Computer systems (servers) in a computer room will usually be bolted into a rack (cabinet). A computer system in a rack is referred to as rack mounted. Racks will usually include cable management features.

Rack mountable servers can be purchased which include a mounting plate at the front for installing the server into a rack (computer cabinet).

Risks, Assumptions, Issues, Dependencies. A RAID log records these and allows someone to track, mitigate and resolve them.

Raspberry Pi is a computer on a motherboard designed to get people interested in the electronics of computing, and create a whole new generation of hobbyist.

The Pi is relatively inexpensive (but is also slow), and can be used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its best feature is the inclusion of a HDMI port. The Pi can run Linux making it versatile and can even be used as a media centre.

It's not really for the faint hearted and would please people who like to tinker. Not those who want something which works straight away, out of the box.

Don't forget that if you buy a Raspberry Pi, you will also likely need a power supply, SIM card and video cables (e.g. SCART or HDMI).

A real time activity takes place at the time rather than later.

e-Mail is not usually real time because there's normally a delay between messages, however, a telephone conversation is real time. Instant messaging is often somewhere in between depending on how responsive each party is.

Real-time reporting needs immediate access to up-to-the minute data. Near real-time may take snapshots of the data, e.g. each hour, so as not to overload the data source. Real-time reporting will often need extra controls to be in place and may therefore cost more and take longer to implement, but this is often outweighted by the benefit of the information not being out of date.

With strategy games, real-time games allow both (or all) players to make moves at the same time. As opposed to turn-based games where players need to wait for their turn.

The webBRIEFCASE Toolkit is real-time. When you request a page, the data from that page is what data was available at the time. There is no snaphot. If one person adds an organisation, and within a second, another person shows the organisations table - they will see the newly added organisation.

All activities should be in your activity list and should be allocated time slots accordingly.

1-2-1 with line manager - fortnightly
1-2-1 with innovation manager(s) - weekly or daily
1-2-1 with subordinates - daily or weekly as required (set targets)
1-2-1 with business partners - fortnightly or monthly
Activity list - daily
Clear down inbox - daily
Risks, Assumptions, Issues, Dependencies (RAID) log
Release plan / roadmap
Project activities
Business as usual activities

A key measure of the feasibility of an activity (e.g. project) is the return on investment. For the money invested in the activity (not forgetting wages) - how much income will be expected? If the ROI is negative or too low, consider other benefits.

The PRINCE2 project management methodology defines a risk as follows:

A risk is an uncertain event or set of events that, should it occur, will have an effect on the achievement of objectives. It consists of a combination of the probability of a perceived threat (negative impact) or opportunity (favourable impact) occuring, and the magnitude of its impact on objectives.

Add a risk to the Risks Table here.

See: Return on Investment

A router is a networking device which transports data from one network (LAN) to another. Most routers will also include a dial-up mechanism, e.g. an ADSL router will dial-up the Internet through a telephone line. Routers often include features such as firewall, network switch, DHCP (IP address allocation), local DNS resolution features (change a web address into an IP address) and WiFi base station. ADSL routers are usually supplied by Internet Service Providers (ISP) when you subscribe to the Internet connectivity service. You can sometimes replace a router if you need a more powerful one.

Software as a service. Software running on a (cloud) service, managed by the solution provider.

See: Service Acceptance Criteria

Safety should always be high on anyone's agenda. Look around now and spot (and fix) any potential safety hazards such as overloaded sockets, bad wiring, trip hazards, fire hazards, etc.

Sales Order Processing is the act of converting an order into a delivered product / service and transitioning into support. This includes issuing an invoice, customization, packaging, delivery, etc.

Whenever designing a solution, whether the solution is scalable should be borne in mind. Can the solution grow to accommodate more users?

Scratch is a tool designed to teach children how to develop software. See http://scratch.mit.edu/. It is particularly suited to the development of educational software and games. When a program has been developed, it can be embedded in a website using JavaScript code.

Display screen. Office divider screen. Checking of something.

Screen sharing allows one person to see what is on another person's computer screen. Sometimes, a computer can also be remotely controlled. If screen sharing is not available (it can after all, be expensive) then a simple screenshot may be an alternative.

On most computer keyboards, press the PrtScn key to copy an image of what is on the computer screen to the clibpoard. This can then be pasted into another application, e.g. e-mail / Word, etc. Use Alt+PrtScn to grab just the application window you are using.

Scrum is an agile project management / software development method. It features scrums (daily stand-up calls), backlog (work to be done), sprints (scheduled work), burndown chart, etc.

A Service Delivery Analyst will usually report to a Service Delivery Management (SDM) and will be responsible for the delivery (smooth running) of service, ensuring it is delivered within agreed SLA's. This may include reviewing incidents and facilitating their speedy resolution. Also, using problem management to ensure incidents don't recur. Using continual service improvement to initiate improvement activities.

See: Software Development Lifecyle

See: Service Delivery Manager

Search engine optimization (SEO) is a process of making a website more suitable for search engines crawlers. Its main objective is to improve the position of the website in results returned from searches using various key words and key phrases.

See: Search engine optimization.

When transferring a service from a project into business as usual processes, service acceptance criteria (SAC) can be used to define what products (e.g. documentation, processes, assigned roles, etc) are required.

A single point of failure is a person, process, service or product which has no resilience built in. Should that object fail, it is likely to cause a major issue. SPoFs should be avoided.

SMS = Short Messaging Service and is a standard protocol for sending and receiving text messages on mobile phones.

The software development life cycle is a process through which software development progresses as follows:

  • Requirements gathering

  • Solution design

  • Build / Development

  • Quality assurance (QA)

  • Release / launch

Organisations will use different words to define each step in the SDLC process. They may also break down some of the processes into sub-processes. For example: QA could include system test, integration test, user acceptance test (UAT).

A spreadsheet application is a piece of software which allows you to record and report on information (e.g. financial data) in sheets containing rows and columns of cells.

A survey, is the collection of data from various sources (usually people). The data can be collated and analyzed, with the results used to make informed decisions.

Surveys can be used fo market research, customer satisfaction, tests & quizzes, competitions and more.

The webBRIEFCASE Survey Toolkit enables you to create and respond to surveys.

A HTML table is a layout method for tabular information.

A database table stores records with a particular topic theme, e.g. People.

A tablet is a hand-held mobile computing device, usually with a relative large screen (in comparison to a smartphone) which may / may not have a keyboard. An iPad is an example of a tablet. Tablets are becoming a popular replacement for laptops.

People will sometimes present the purchase price of an item as the only cost when determining the cost benefit. However, there are often other consts to consider.

For example, you could pay £680 for a laptop, however, that laptop also needs support, maintenance, updates and later disposal. Each of these cost money. The total cost of ownership (TCO) will include all of these.

An alternative could be a leased laptop with support, maintenance, updates and later disposal (e.g. return) all inclusive. Over the expected lifetime of the laptop, the total cost of ownership could therefore be less.

Taking the TCO into account therefore enables you to make a more informed decision, with less risk.

When you ask someone to work on an activity, you should always negotiate a reasonable turnaround time, and document that for future reference. The activity then become time-bound, and the activity owner will be expected to complete on time. You should make it clear that, if the activity is likely to not be delivered on time, that you should be told about this as soon as possible, not at the last minute - since the later your are notified, the more serious the impact is likely to be. When chasing a time-bound activity, it should be made clear the impact of the activity not being delivered on time. For example, activities which depend on the time-bound activity, will start late, and the resources for those activities will further need to confirm their availability at a new time.

Everyone appears to be time poor these days. They are so overloaded with work that, when they promise to do something, they don't deliver. Or will deliver late, and only after prompting. You may be in this position yourself, despite your best efforts. If you are time poor, you should ensure that you are using effective time management techniques to maximize on the output of your efforts. If you are trying to deal with someone who is time poor - try to remain calm on patient about it. It is rarely caused by an issue that the person has with you.

A timesheet can be used to record time spent on various business activities. It is often essential when working on projects which require cross-charging, or charge back to a client. A timesheet can also be a way of improving productivity by ensuring all time is attributed to an activity. Entries can then be challenged if they appear to be excessive or not required. 

webBRIEFCASE can provide off-the-shelf and custom timesheet solutions. Please contact us for details.

A tool is an part of the webBRIEFCASE Toolkit which provides a piece of application functionality. Examples of tools are Table (which shows database tables and records), A-Z which shows the A-Z selector above a table, and About which shows the about / contact us page for a website.

The webBRIEFCASE Toolkit is a powerful content management system (CMS), master data manager (MDM) and web-based application framework, designed to facilitate rapid development of web-based business solutions. A toolkit is a webBRIEFCASE application comprising of database tables and tools.

See: webBRIEFCASE Toolkits.

According to WikiPedia: An umbrella company is a company that acts as an employer to agency contractors who work under a fixed term contract assignment, usually through a recruitment employment agency in the United Kingdom. Recruitment agencies issue contracts to a limited company as the agency liability would be reduced. It issues invoices to the recruitment agency (or client) and, when payment of the invoice is made, will typically pay the contractor through PAYE with the added benefit of offsetting some of the income through claiming expenses such as travel, meals, and accommodation.

Umbrella companies have become more prevalent in the UK since the British government introduced so-called IR35 legislation that creates tests to determine employment status and ability to make use of small company tax reliefs.

Upgrading software means installing a later version of the software. Upgrading can involve the installation of patches which change part of the installed software. See also: update.

To validate something is to check that it is acceptable. To do this, what is acceptable should be clearly defined. The result of a validation would be a pass, conditional pass or fail.

VAT is a tax levied by the UK government on products and services. Organisations who turnover exceeds a pre-defined turnover are required to become VAT registered, to charge VAT, calculate VAT payments and send those payments to the Inland Revenue. Becoming VAT registration can add credibility to your organisation.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community that develops open standards to ensure the long-term growth of the Web. Visit: 

Waterfall is a hierarchical project management structure where a project is broken down into waves, stages, etc. Stages will tend to have a stage boundary and an approval process to move to the next stage. See also: Agile.

See: Work Breakdown Structure.

webBRIEFCASE is a brand of Web Briefcase Ltd.

See: www.webBRIEFCASE.com

Need a website? Contact support@webBRIEFCASE.com today to discuss your requirements. webBRIEFCASE websites are powered by the webBRIEFCASE Toolkit - a powerful content management system (CMS), master data manager and web application framework.

A workbook is a spreadsheet; a collection of worksheets.

A workbook (spreadsheet) consists of one or more worksheets. A worksheet contains rows and columns of cells. The worksheet has a name which is shown in as the worksheet tab label and (sometimes) tab colour. A worksheet can be hidden.

See: Worksheet

X Windows is a graphical user interface (GUI) for Unix / Linux systems. It is a platform upon which other GUI's can be built including: Gnome and KDE.

A zero defect solution is one which is designed not to fail. Zero defect solutions, depending on their complexity can be very costly to implement since they require careful design, development and particularly, rigorous quality assurance testing.

Zip is a commonly used file compression format. Zip / unzip capabilities are embedded into Microsoft Windows.

Web pages can be divided into zones. Each zone showing certain content, e.g. menu zone, footer zone, etc.

Firewalls can have zones. There are virtual LANs (local area networks).

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